AWR recently published a news application note: Design of a Full ETSI E-band Circuit for a Millimeter-Wave Wireless System. The article explains how to use Microwave Office circuit design software to develop a Q- to E-band doubler and a K- to E-band quadrupler circuit (including a medium E-band power amplifier) for millimeter-wave wireless systems. The design effort resulted in an increase in gain as well as output power, two critical criteria for E-band systems.
Design of a Full ETSI E-band Circuit for a mm-Wave Wireless System
Wireless system components, including gallium arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT) frequency doublers, quadruplers, and power amplifiers (PAs), are important for E-band applications to achieve optimum output power and power-added efficiency (PAE) over wide bandwidths. Circuits that provide 15dBm or more of RF power across the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) E-bands of 71-76 and 81-86GHz are useful in radio systems for multipliers such as doublers, triplers, and quadruplers supplying local oscillator power to highly linear down- and up-converter mixers for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) radio system and direct transmission for low QAM systems. Higher output power (greater than 20dBm or 100mW) is a desirable characteristic for linear E-band systems PAs, and the research and design communities are working towards the ultimate goal of providing 1W at the antenna for E-band system design.
The circuit design of a frequency doubler, quadrupler, and power amplifier for E-band applications has been demonstrated. The doubler has a broadband measured output power of over 15dBm and the quadrupler has a maximum measured output power of 19.2dBm. The power amplifier has a maximum measured output power of 24.2dBm (265mW) and exceeds 23dBm (200mW) over the entire 15GHz bandwidth of the ETSI E-band specification. It achieves a measured PAE above eight percent across the ETSI E-bands. This is the highest saturated output power and PAE for a power amplifier spanning the full 71 to 86GHz span of the ETSI E-band specification for any semiconductor system. Good agreement between measurement and simulation has been demonstrated. The ability to bring together accurate circuit modeling and integrated design fl ow in a single powerful tool suite gave this experienced, world-class design team the platform for first-pass success. This design effort represents a major step forward in the industry’s ability to deliver 1W radiated from a single chip solution in an E-band system.